Bone Augmentation Procedures in Implant Dentistry

Matteo Chiapasco,MD/Paolo Casentini, DDS/Marco Zaniboni, DDS

This review evaluated the success of different surgical techniques for the reconstruction of edentulous deficient alveolar ridges and the survival/success rates of implants placed in the augmented areas. Clinical investigations published in English involving more than 10 consecutively treated patients and mean follow-up of at least 12 months after commencement of prosthetic loading were included. The following procedures were considered: onlay bone grafts, sinus floor elevation via a lateral approach, Le Fort I osteotomy with interpositional grafts, split ridge/ridge expansion techniques, and alveolar distraction osteogenesis. For this article, full-text articles were identified using computerized and hand searches by key words. Success and related morbidity of augmentation procedures and survival/success rates of implants placed in the augmented sites were analyzed. A wide range of surgical procedures were identified. However, it was difficult to demonstrate that one surgical procedure offered better outcomes than another. Moreover, it is not yet known if some surgical procedures, eg, reconstruction of atrophic edentulous mandibles with onlay autogenous bone grafts or maxillary sinus grafting procedures in case of limited/moderate sinus pneumatization, improve long-term implant survival. We can state that every surgical procedure presents advantages and disadvantages. As a generale rule, priority should be given to those procedures which are simpler and less invasive, involve less risk of complications, and reach their goals within the shortest time frame. In our review, the main limit encountered was the overall poor methodological quality of the published articles. In future, larger well-designed long-term trials have to be performed..